Post #15

Works Cited

“Vietnam War.” Vietnam War. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.

Hickman, Kennedy. “Fall of Saigon – Vietnam War Fall of Saigon.”Militaryhistory.about.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2015.

“Napalm, Agent Orange – The Vietnam War.” Napalm, Agent Orange – The Vietnam War. Weebly, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.

“Vietnam War Protests.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2015.

“The Military Draft and 1969 Draft Lottery for the Vietnam War.” LANDSCAPER.NET, 27 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

“Guerrilla Tactics: An Overview.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.

Trueman, Chris. “Protests against the Vietnam War.” Protests against the Vietnam War. HistoryLearningSite.co.uk, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

“Nov. 15, 1969 | Anti-Vietnam War Demonstration Held.” The Learning Network Nov 15 1969 AntiVietnam War Demonstration Held Comments. The New York Times Company, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

McNichol, Tom. “I Am Not a Kook: Richard Nixon’s Bizarre Visit to the Lincoln Memorial.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 14 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 May 2015.

“Nixon Defends Invasion of Cambodia.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 6 May 2015.

“How Did the Vietnam War End? – The Vietnam War.” The Vietnam War. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2015.

Lewis, Jerry M., and Thomas R. Hensley. “The May 4th Shootings at Kent State University: The Search for Historical Accuracy” dept.kent.edu. The Ohio Council for the Social Studies Review, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

“Vietnam War History.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.

“Statistical Information about Casualties of the Vietnam War.” National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 6 May 2015.

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Post #14

The Paris Peace Accords ending the conflict were signed January 27, 1973, and were followed by the withdrawal of the remaining American troops. With United States troops out of Vietnam, South Vietnam was left alone to defend themselves against the Viet Cong. And things only got worse; in December of 1974, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, cutting off all military aid to South Vietnam, and very soon after, the People’s Army of North Vietnam (PAVN) began a series of offensives against South Vietnam. But in April 1975, North Vietnamese forces invaded South Vietnam’s capital city, Saigon which resulted in the surrender by President Duong Van Minh on April 29th. The fall of Saigon marks the end of the Vietnam War. This event began the reunification of South and North Vietnam under communist rule. The Vietnam War was the longest war in U.S. history and is considered to be the only war the United States has ever lost. The country also paid a high political cost for the war. It weakened public faith in government, and in the capabilities of its leaders. Many individuals of the “baby boomer” generation because of the Vietnam War are less trusting of the government and those in positions of power. During Vietnam War, the United States suffered 58,119 killed, and casualty figures for the Republic of Vietnam are estimated at 230,000 killed. Combined, the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong suffered approximately 1,100,000 killed in action, and it is estimated that between 2 to 4 million Vietnamese civilians were killed during the conflict.

All in all, most view the Vietnam War as immoral and disreputable, and as a conflict that should not have gone on as long as it did.

Post #13

Peace negotiations regarding South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the United States had began as early as 1965, but no real progress had been made until 1972-1973. Nixon had begun withdrawing troops from Vietnam but the Easter Offensive had caused more damage and conflict. And in 1972, following negotiations with North Vietnam, he announced his massive bombing campaign, known as Linebacker II and also known as the “Christmas bombings”, which began December 18th and ended December 29th. U.S. dropped over 20,000 tons of bombs on the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. At least 30 US airmen were killed and more than 20 went missing in action, and others were captured after ejecting over North Vietnam. The bombings were an extreme effort to get North Vietnamese to continue to negotiations with the United States about resolving the conflict. And finally, in January 1973 after the extensive bombings of North Vietnam, the Paris Peace Accords was eventually signed in an attempt to restore peace and end direct U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. Under the provisions of the Accords, U.S. forces were to be completely withdrawn. The main provision of the agreement were: 1.An in-place ceasefire between North and South Vietnamese forces began at 8:00 on January 28, 1973, 2. When the ceasefire was in effect, US  troops had sixty days to withdrawn all of their forces. Both side had to release all their war prisoners 3. South Vietnam would negotiate a political settlement which would allow South Vietnamese people to decide their own political future, and 4. Reunification of Vietnam was to be “carried out step by step through peaceful means”. (http://thevietnamwar.info/how-did-the-vietnam-war-end/)

Post #12

Because Richard Nixon, in his campaign for presidency promised Vietnamization to the American people, many felt betrayed when he had announced he was planning on invading Cambodia in April (before the Kent State shootings). People became angry and resentful which is why many protests and rallies became more widespread and intense. Because of the reaction to the looming Cambodia invasion, more than 250 State Department and foreign aid employees signed a letter to Secretary of State William Rogers, criticizing U.S. military involvement in Cambodia. Also, “there were a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives that attempted to limit severely the executive war-making powers of the president.” (http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nixon-defends-invasion-of-cambodia) On December 29, 1970, Congress passed a modified version of the Cooper-Church Amendment (a bill that would have barred funds for future military operations in Cambodia which was voted down by the House), barring the introduction of U.S. ground troops in Laos or Thailand. In 1970, the North Vietnamese launched a large attack against South Vietnam called the Easter Offensive. The attack included invasions to destroy as many units of the ARVN (the Army of the Republic of Vietnam) as possible and also gain as much territory as possible. American troops succeeded in stopping the attacks eventually, after much damage to South Vietnam had been done. U.S. air power played an essential role in attempting to stop the attack. The attack had been successful for the North Vietnamese and caused more than 100,000 casualties of the ARVN.

Post #11

After the Kent State shootings, it was obvious the country had had enough of the Vietnam War efforts. There were many consequences to the Kent State shootings. Over one hundred schools closed on strike for the remainder of the school week after the incident, and over 900 schools closed before the end of May in 1970. By this time, over 175,000 faculty members joined the anti-war protests. On May 8th, ten days after Nixon announced the Cambodian invasion and four days after the Kent State shootings, 100,000 protesters gathered in Washington and another 150,000 in San Francisco. Thirty ROTC (The Reserve Officers’ Training Corps) buildings went up in flames or were bombed. There were violent clashes between students and police at 26 schools and National Guard units were assembled on 21 campuses in 16 states. And on May 9th 1970, president Nixon made an unexpected visit to the Lincoln Memorial and had an (what was described as) an odd encounter with young students from around the country, who were protesting. When the discussion turned to Vietnam, Nixon says he told the students, “I hope that (your) hatred of the war, which I could well understand, would not turn into a bitter hatred of our whole system, our country and everything that it stood for. I said that I know probably most of you think I’m an SOB. But I want you to know that I understand just how you feel.” (http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/11/i-am-not-a-kook-richard-nixons-bizarre-visit-to-the-lincoln-memorial/248443/) Soon the small group turned into an unsatisfied crowd and Nixon left soon in a limousine, which left the crowd angry and confused.

Post #10

On April 30, 1970, President Richard Nixon appeared on national television to announce the invasion of Cambodia by the United States, and the need to draft 150,000 more soldiers for the war effort. This caused major uproar and protests on campuses throughout the US. On May 4th, 1970, less than a week after Nixon’s announcement, a protest was planned to be held at Kent State University in Ohio at noon. University officials attempted to stop the rally from happening, by handing out papers saying it had been cancelled, but 2,000 people showed up on Kent State campus. Students launched the demonstration anyway and began making speeches. The Ohio National Guard who was on campus grounds began attempting to disperse the crowd by threatening to make arrests, but the students stood their ground and began yelling and throwing rocks at the guards. Nearly twenty minutes after the demonstration had begun, the guards began advancing toward the protesters, with rifles and tear gas in hand. Much of the crowd dispersed, but many stood their ground. Shortly after, as the crowd moved into smaller groups, the guard began shooting at the students. The shots killed four, and injured nine. Many students were in a state of shock and terror immediately after the shooting. After pictures of the students that were shot on campus were released in newspapers following the killings, the unrest among the country escalated even further. After the Kent State shootings, almost five hundred colleges were shut down or disrupted by protests. Many see the Kent State shootings as a major turning point for the United States involvement in the Vietnam War.

Post #9

In 1968, Lyndon B Johnson announced on television that he was not running for reelection. He also announced “[I]  am taking the first step to deescalate the conflict [in Vietnam].” Richard Nixon was elected in 1968, and he promised to find a way to achieve “peace with honor” in Vietnam, though he was never entirely clear about how this was going to be accomplished. The public was desperate to get out of Vietnam and were willing to give (very anti-communist) Nixon a chance. After his election, Nixon introduced a new strategy called Vietnamization that was aimed to end American involvement in Vietnam, and leaving military responsibility on South Vietnam.  On Nov. 15, 1969, the largest antiwar protest in United States history took place when as many as half a million people attended a peaceful anti war demonstration in Washington. The rally included many politicians who were against the Vietnam War, who made speeches, and the rally included musical performances as well. The New York Times described the crowd as “predominantly youthful” and “mass gathering of the moderate and radical Left … old-style liberals; Communists and pacifists and a sprinkling of the violent New Left.” (http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/15/nov-15-1969-anti-vietnam-war-demonstration-held/) The large gathering made it obvious that the public was eager to get out of Vietnam. Protests on college campuses were still frequent and widespread. By the end of 1968, the number of American troops in Vietnam was 535,100, and the number of casualties reached just under 23,000. (22,951)